Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by a virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Symptoms of COVID19 are variable, but often include fever, cough, headache, fatigue, breathing difficulties, loss of smell, and loss of taste. Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. At least a third of people who are infected do not develop noticeable symptoms. Of those people who develop symptoms noticeable enough to be classed as patients, most (81%) develop mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging), and 5% suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction). Older people are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. Some people continue to experience a range of effects (long COVID) for months after recovery, and damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.Kidney function refers to the function of the kidney to excrete metabolic waste in the body and maintain the stability and acid-base balance of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and calcium. The examination of renal function includes blood creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, blood and urine β 2-microglobulin, urinary albumin, urinary immunoglobulin G, urinary secretory immunoglobulin A, etc. Kidney is one of the indispensable organs in human body. It forms the urinary system together with ureter, bladder and urethra. The kidney is a pair of parenchymal organs, one on the left and one on the right. They are located on both sides of the spine and close to the posterior abdominal wall. Because this part is located at the waist, people commonly call the kidney "waist". The kidney looks like a broad bean with a smooth surface. Each kidney is 10 ~ 12cm long, 5 ~ 6cm wide, 3 ~ 4cm thick and weighs 120 ~ 150g.
conical lobe, sometimes there is a small muscle bundle, called thyroid levator muscle, which can lift the thyroid gland. Therefore, thyroid function plays a great role in the human body.
A substance produced and released by tumor cells often exists in tumor cells or host body fluids in the form of metabolites such as antigens, enzymes and hormones. Tumors can be identified or diagnosed according to their biochemical or immune characteristics. What are tumor markers? The biochemical properties and metabolic abnormalities of tumor cells, so there are substances with qualitative or quantitative changes in the body fluids, excretions and tissues of tumor patients. These are tumor markers. Clinically, tumor markers are mainly used for the discovery of primary tumors, the screening of high-risk groups, the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors, the judgment of tumor development, the observation and evaluation of tumor treatment effect, and the prediction of tumor recurrence and prognosis.
Cardiac markers, also known as myocardial markers, are indicators of cardiomyocyte necrosis. Generally, specific values are obtained through laboratory examination. The main cardiac markers include creatine kinase, creatine kinase isozyme, troponin, myoglobin and so on. In case of myocardial cell necrosis, such as viral myocarditis or acute myocardial infarction, the above enzymes in the cells can be released into the blood. The rise of corresponding indicators can be seen during laboratory examination, suggesting the occurrence of myocardial necrosis. At the same time, according to the rising range of cardiac markers, we can indirectly understand the area of cardiomyocyte necrosis and the severity of the disease.